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The Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition

  1. Christina E. Erneling, Understanding Language Acquisition: The Framework of Learning - PhilPapers
  2. Table of contents
  3. Psycholinguistics/Theories and Models of Language Acquisition

For example, recent motivation research has witnessed something of a boom since the nineties, with research questions becoming more sophisticated and addressing more directly language teaching issues. If motivation, as well as other learner variables, is now widely recognised as playing a determining role in SLA, more research needs to be carried out on its pedagogical implications, i.

For further discussion, see article in this Guide on Learner Difference by Skehan. The picture emerging from research into second language development is, unsurprisingly, highly complex, and many factors have been identified as playing a role. Here I will outline more systematically the relationship which is emerging between SLA research and language pedagogy at the beginning of this century. As SLA research has matured, and the key constructs which form its theoretical basis have become established, the field has become better able to look outwards and investigate the role of different contexts of learning.

Furthermore, there has been renewed interest in grammar pedagogy Lightbown ; Mitchell , partly because of the perceived failure of contexts of learning promoting 'natural' communication immersion , and Communicative Language Teaching in producing learners who are consistently accurate in their productions. Consequently, the role of instruction and the role of the input in facilitating the L2 learning process have increasingly become foci of interest.

The object of most of these studies is to test what kind of instruction is most effective, such as 'input enhancement' that is ways of making the input more noticeable for learners, such as e. Different ways of presenting structural input have also been explored, with explicit form-focused instruction being contrasted with implicit form-focused instruction with learners having to work out the rule for themselves, or having the rule made explicit to them. This research is crucial for gaining a better understanding of the relationship between learning and teaching Mitchell Much progress has been made in gaining a better understanding of the processes involved in learning second languages, as well as the different external factors which affect this process.

Although these complementary agendas remain less integrated than one might wish, bridges are being built which connect them. Similarly, the implications of SLA research for teaching are now receiving more attention, as is the specificity of the classroom context for understanding learning, but much more work remains to be done in these areas. There is still a huge gap - not unsurprisingly, given the limits of our knowledge - between the complementary agendas of understanding the psycholinguistic processes involved in the construction of L2 linguistic systems, and understanding what makes for effective classroom teaching.

I wish to thank Rosamond Mitchell and Emma Marsden for useful comments on an earlier version of this article, as well as Christopher Brumfit and David Bickerton for their helpful suggestions as reviewer and editor of this piece. Any remaining errors are my own. Audiolingual method The behaviourist teaching method popular in the sixties and seventies, based on the premise that you learn to speak languages through habit-formation, and therefore need to practise drills until the new habit has been learnt.

Communicative Language Teaching This approach to teaching believes that languages are learnt through communication, and that the focus of the classroom should be on encouraging learners to engage in speaking activities which simulate 'real life' communication. This approach de-emphasises the role of a metalinguistic knowledge of the L2 linguistic system. Fossilisation The phenomenon by which L2 learners often stop learning even though they might be far short of native-like competence.

Christina E. Erneling, Understanding Language Acquisition: The Framework of Learning - PhilPapers

The term is also used for specific linguistic structures which remain incorrect for lengthy periods of time in spite of plentiful input e. Grammar-translation method The traditional teaching method which believed that the best way to teach languages is through the teaching of grammar and the translation of texts. Immersion This term refers to educational programs in which children are taught academic subjects e.

These programs are well established in Canada, where many anglophone children are educated partly through the means of French especially in the province of Quebec. Interlanguage A term used both to refer to the linguistic system of L2 learners at a specific point in time, and to the series of interlocking L2 systems typical of L2 development.

The significance of this term is the emphasis it places on the L2 system being a linguistic system in its own right, independently of both L1 and L2. Transfer Use of L1 properties in the L2.

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Transfer can be positive, when the borrowing of an L1 structure leads to a correct form in the L2 e. Aljaafreh, A. Lantolf Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the Zone of Proximal Development. Modern Language Journal 78, Archibald, J. Second language acquisition and linguistic theory. Malden, Mass. Balcom, P. Second Language Research 17, Berry, J. Official Multiculturalism. Edwards ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Birdsong, D. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cook, V. An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Longman. Skehan eds Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Doughty, C.

Table of contents

Cognitive Underpinnings of Focus on Form. Williams eds Ellis, N. Schmidt Studies in Second Language Acquisition Ellis, R.

McREL - The Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition

The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Flynn, S. O'Neil eds Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum. Gallaway, C. Richards eds Input and Interaction in Language Acquisition. Gass, S. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Varonis Input, Interaction and Second Language Production. Harley, B. Hawkins, R. Herschensohn, J. Krashen, S. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.

Oxford: Pergamon. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Lantolf, J. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Lantolf, P. Appel eds Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Lightbown, P. Applied Linguistics 21, Long, M. Bhatia eds , Handbook of Second Language Acquisition , San Diego: Academic Press. Ortega The Modern Language Journal Lyster, R. Ranta Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19, Mitchell, R. Myles Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold. Myles, F. Rote or rule?

Exploring the role of formulaic language in classroom foreign language learning. Language Learning, 48 3 , Interrogative chunks in French L2: A basis for creative construction? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21 1 , Norris, J. Language Learning 50, Does Type of Instruction make a Difference?

Substantive Findings from a Meta-analytic Review. Ellis , Odlin, T. Oliver, R. Pica, T. Language Learning Pienemann, M. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, Robinson, P. Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Sawyer, M. Aptitude, Individual Differences, and Instructional Design. Robinson , Schwartz, B. Flynn, G. New Jersey: Erlbaum. Selinker, L. Rediscovering Interlanguage. London: Longman. Singleton, D. Lengyel eds Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Skehan, P.

Psycholinguistics/Theories and Models of Language Acquisition

How is language acquisition possible? How is it that humans, within a few years of birth, can speak and understand language, transcending both its limited experience and biological limitations? This book is timely and may sway some of the doubters. The consequential step that Wittgenstein makes, of developing a psychology of skills, is well brought out. The book is not only a contribution to the field of developmental psycholinguistics, but to Wittgenstein scholarship.

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