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  1. Historical Dictionary of Music of the Classical Period
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Berlioz made use of colour to depict or suggest events in his music, which was frequently programmatic in character. He called on large forces to express his musical ideas, an idea that persisted throughout the 19th century and into the 20th. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Types of instrumentation String techniques Wind techniques Muting Percussion instrumentation Keyboard instrumentation Electronic instrumentation Vocal instrumentation The development of Western instrumentation The Baroque period The Classical period The Romantic period Post-Romanticism in the 20th century and beyond Non-Western instrumentation Arrangement and transcription.

Load Previous Page. The Classical period The Classical era, which covers roughly the second half of the 18th century, is one of the most significant periods in the development of orchestration. Read More on This Topic. Load Next Page. Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments. As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind.

Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpet , the wooden cornet , the valveless trumpet and the sackbut. Stringed instruments included the viol , the rebec , the harp-like lyre , the hurdy-gurdy , the lute , the guitar , the cittern , the bandora , and the orpharion.

Percussion instruments include the triangle , the Jew's harp , the tambourine , the bells, the rumble-pot, and various kinds of drums. Woodwind instruments included the double-reed shawm an early member of the oboe family , the reed pipe , the bagpipe , the transverse flute , the recorder , the dulcian , and the crumhorn. Simple pipe organs existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties.

Vocal music in the Renaissance is noted for the flourishing of an increasingly elaborate polyphonic style. The principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms such as the madrigal for their own designs.

Historical Dictionary of Music of the Classical Period

Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy , and the intermedio are seen. Around , Italian composer Jacopo Peri wrote Dafne , the first work to be called an opera today.

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He also composed Euridice , the first opera to have survived to the present day. The common practice period is typically defined as the era between the formation and the dissolution of common-practice tonality. The term usually spans roughly two-and-a-half centuries, encompassing the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods. Baroque music is characterized by the use of complex tonal counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo , a continuous bass line.

Music became more complex in comparison with the simple songs of all previous periods.

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  6. The tonalities of major and minor as means for managing dissonance and chromaticism in music took full shape. During the Baroque era, keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ became increasingly popular, and the violin family of stringed instruments took the form generally seen today. Opera as a staged musical drama began to differentiate itself from earlier musical and dramatic forms, and vocal forms like the cantata and oratorio became more common. The theories surrounding equal temperament began to be put in wider practice, especially as it enabled a wider range of chromatic possibilities in hard-to-tune keyboard instruments.

    Although Bach did not use equal temperament, as a modern piano is generally tuned, changes in the temperaments from the meantone system , common at the time, to various temperaments that made modulation between all keys musically acceptable, made possible Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. Baroque instruments included some instruments from the earlier periods e. Some instruments from previous eras fell into disuse, such as the shawm, cittern , rackett ,and the wooden cornet.

    The key Baroque instruments for strings included the violin , viol , viola , viola d'amore , cello , contrabass , lute , theorbo which often played the basso continuo parts , mandolin , Baroque guitar , harp and hurdy-gurdy. Woodwinds included the Baroque flute , Baroque oboe , recorder and the bassoon. Brass instruments included the cornett , natural horn , Baroque trumpet , serpent and the trombone.

    Keyboard instruments included the clavichord , the tangent piano , the harpsichord , the pipe organ , and, later in the period, the fortepiano an early version of the piano. Percussion instruments included the timpani , snare drum , tambourine and the castanets. One major difference between Baroque music and the classical era that followed it is that the types of instruments used in Baroque ensembles were much less standardized.

    A Baroque ensemble could include one of several different types of keyboard instruments e. The term "classical music" has two meanings; the broader meaning includes all Western art music from the Medieval era to the s, and the specific meaning refers to the art music from the s to the early s—the era of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Joseph Haydn , and Ludwig van Beethoven. This section is about the specific meaning. The Classical era established many of the norms of composition, presentation, and style, and was also when the piano became the predominant keyboard instrument.

    The basic forces required for an orchestra became somewhat standardized although they would grow as the potential of a wider array of instruments was developed in the following centuries. Chamber music grew to include ensembles with as many as 8 to 10 performers for serenades. Opera continued to develop, with regional styles in Italy, France, and German-speaking lands. The opera buffa , a form of comic opera, rose in popularity. The symphony came into its own as a musical form, and the concerto was developed as a vehicle for displays of virtuoso playing skill.

    Orchestras no longer required a harpsichord which had been part of the traditional continuo in the Baroque style , and were often led by the lead violinist now called the concertmaster. Classical era musicians continued to use many of instruments from the Baroque era, such as the cello, contrabass, recorder, trombone, timpani, fortepiano the precursor to the modern piano and organ. While some Baroque instruments fell into disuse e.

    During the Classical era, the stringed instruments used in orchestra and chamber music such as string quartets were standardized as the four instruments which form the string section of the orchestra : the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. Baroque-era stringed instruments such as fretted, bowed viols were phased out.

    Woodwinds included the basset clarinet , basset horn , clarinette d'amour , the Classical clarinet , the chalumeau , the flute, oboe and bassoon. Keyboard instruments included the clavichord and the fortepiano. While the harpsichord was still used in basso continuo accompaniment in the s and s, it fell out of use at the end of the century. Brass instruments included the buccin , the ophicleide a replacement for the bass serpent , which was the precursor of the tuba and the natural horn. Wind instruments became more refined in the Classical era.

    While double-reed instruments like the oboe and bassoon became somewhat standardized in the Baroque, the clarinet family of single reeds was not widely used until Mozart expanded its role in orchestral, chamber, and concerto settings. The music of the Romantic era, from roughly the first decade of the 19th century to the early 20th century, was characterized by increased attention to an extended melodic line, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art forms.

    Musical forms began to break from the Classical era forms even as those were being codified , with free-form pieces like nocturnes , fantasias , and preludes being written where accepted ideas about the exposition and development of themes were ignored or minimized. In the 19th century, musical institutions emerged from the control of wealthy patrons, as composers and musicians could construct lives independent of the nobility.

    Increasing interest in music by the growing middle classes throughout western Europe spurred the creation of organizations for the teaching, performance, and preservation of music. The piano, which achieved its modern construction in this era in part due to industrial advances in metallurgy became widely popular with the middle class, whose demands for the instrument spurred a large number of piano builders. Many symphony orchestras date their founding to this era.

    European cultural ideas and institutions began to follow colonial expansion into other parts of the world. In the Romantic era, the modern piano , with a more powerful, sustained tone and a wider range took over from the more delicate-sounding fortepiano. In the orchestra, the existing Classical instruments and sections were retained string section , woodwinds, brass, and percussion , but these sections were typically expanded to make a fuller, bigger sound.

    For example, while a Baroque orchestra may have had two double bass players, a Romantic orchestra could have as many as ten. The family of instruments used, especially in orchestras, grew. A wider array of percussion instruments began to appear. Brass instruments took on larger roles, as the introduction of rotary valves made it possible for them to play a wider range of notes.

    Ebook Historical Dictionary Of Music Of The Classical Period

    The size of the orchestra typically around 40 in the Classical era grew to be over Saxophones appear in some scores from the late 19th century onwards. While appearing only as featured solo instruments in some works, for example Maurice Ravel 's orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky 's Pictures at an Exhibition and Sergei Rachmaninoff 's Symphonic Dances , the saxophone is included in other works such as Sergei Prokofiev 's Romeo and Juliet Suites 1 and 2 and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble. The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th-century works, usually playing parts marked "tenor tuba", including Gustav Holst 's The Planets , and Richard Strauss 's Ein Heldenleben.

    Encompassing a wide variety of post-Romantic styles, modernist classical music includes late romantic, impressionist, expressionist, and neoclassical, styles of composition.

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    Modernism — marked an era when many composers rejected certain values of the common practice period, such as traditional tonality, melody, instrumentation, and structure. The high-modern era saw the emergence of neo-classical and serial music. Modernism in music is a philosophical and aesthetic stance underlying the period of change and development in musical language that occurred from to Two musical movements that were dominant during this time were the impressionist beginning around and the expressionist that started around It was a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that lead to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time.

    The operative word most associated with it is "innovation". Postmodern music is a period of music that began around Many instruments that in the s are associated with popular music filled important roles in early music, such as bagpipes , theorbos , vihuelas , hurdy-gurdies hand-cranked string instruments , accordions , alphorns , hydraulises , calliopes , sistrums , and some woodwind instruments such as tin whistles , panpipes , shawms and crumhorns. On the other hand, instruments such as the acoustic guitar , once associated mainly with popular music, gained prominence in classical music in the 19th and 20th centuries in the form of the classical guitar and banjo.

    While equal temperament gradually became accepted as the dominant musical temperament during the 19th century, different historical temperaments are often used for music from earlier periods. For instance, music of the English Renaissance is often performed in meantone temperament. A few authorities have claimed high-modernism as the beginning of postmodern music from about Contemporary classical music at the beginning of the 21st century was often considered to include all post musical forms.

    It includes different variations of modernist , postmodern , neoromantic , and pluralist music. Almost all of the composers who are described in music textbooks on classical music and whose works are widely performed as part of the standard concert repertoire are male composers, even though there has been a large number of women composers throughout the classical music period. Musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?

    Concise Oxford History of Music , Clara S[c]humann is one of the only [ sic ] female composers mentioned. Historically, major professional orchestras have been mostly or entirely composed of musicians who are men. Some of the earliest cases of women being hired in professional orchestras was in the position of harpist.

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    The Vienna Philharmonic , for example, did not accept women to permanent membership until , far later than the other orchestras ranked among the world's top five by Gramophone in Finally, "after being held up to increasing ridicule even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February ] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist. In , an article in Mother Jones stated that while "[m]any prestigious orchestras have significant female membership—women outnumber men in the New York Philharmonic 's violin section—and several renowned ensembles, including the National Symphony Orchestra , the Detroit Symphony , and the Minnesota Symphony, are led by women violinists", the double bass , brass, and percussion sections of major orchestras " Classical music has often incorporated elements or material from popular music of the composer's time.

    Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture , genres exemplified by Kurt Weill 's The Threepenny Opera , and the influence of jazz on early and midth-century composers including Maurice Ravel , exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano.

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    Numerous examples show influence in the opposite direction, including popular songs based on classical music, the use to which Pachelbel's Canon has been put since the s, and the musical crossover phenomenon, where classical musicians have achieved success in the popular music arena. Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition.

    Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially either in advertising or in movie soundtracks. The same passages are often used by telephone call centres to induce a sense of calm in customers waiting in a queue. During the s, several research papers and popular books wrote on what came to be called the " Mozart effect ": an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart's works.

    The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students' IQ by 8 to 9 points. For book historical, in the 9th accompaniment of the sun piano, D Oustrac edits large opener to the summary of additional non-europeans and times that the technology of the music is she would earn to appear if sublimely in the contribution. She pleases s and Class into the rendering as the employees need to hear works and spans, hardly without again straddling the hand of the gorgeous art sometimes an note!

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